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Celeron
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Posts: 37

PostPosted: Fri Jan 20, 2006 9:55 pm    Post subject: Cisco VOIP QoS for Vonage Reply with quote Back to top

Hi everyone,

I'm posting this in hopes that it will help others configure their Cisco routers to provide the proper quality of service configuration for Vonage. Below you will find the necessary configuration and explanations of each particular section. Enjoy!

Topology:
Internet---Cable modem---ethernet---Cisco Router---ethernet---vonage phone adapter---phones

This configuration should work in just about every version of IOS from 12.2 mainline and above. Note, the traffic shaping my not be available on every platform or feature set.

To configure the QoS for Vonage you don't have to do a whole lot. Here's the configuration you need:

!
class-map match-all voice-traffic
match ip rtp 10000 10000
!
!
policy-map voice-policy
class voice-traffic
priority 200
class class-default
fair-queue
policy-map shaper
class class-default
shape average 350000 3500 0
service-policy voice-policy
!
interface <name of your WAN interface>
service-policy output shaper
!

The above configuration was taken directly from my router. I'll explain each portion of the above config so you know what it's doing.

a. The class map defines what type of packets you want to specify for quality of service. In this case the class-map is specifying all RTP packets, start at port 10000, for a range of 10000 ports. So in essence, any RTP packets to ports 10000-20000 will be targeted for quality of service.

b. The policy-map voice-policy is how you define how much bandwidth each class gets. In this case the voice-traffic class (the one I defined in the class-map) is getting 200kbps of bandwidth. This is more than enough for a single Vonage phone call (at the 90k setting). Specifying more than necessary doesn't hurt anything as it will only reserve the bandwidth if needed. Class-default is all your other traffic. Here we aren't specifying any bandwidth to be reserved, as such it will be handled in a standard fair-queueing type fashion where each traffic flow will be given an equal portion of the remaining bandwidth.

c. The policy-map shaper is VERY important. This slows down your interface to the speed of your upload stream. In most cases, your cable modem will have an Ethernet or Fast Ethernet connection to your router. Quality of service on kicks in only when a link is congested. If you don't slow down the connection to the cable modem itself the congestion will happen on the cable modem instead of the router. You don't control the cable modem, so you need to handle the congestion on the router. The shape average command is how you define how much you want to limit the interface. In this case I've specified 350kbps, 350000. The next value should always be a 100th of the first, hence the 3500. The last value should ALWAYS be 0. So, for example, if your upload speed 230kbps the command would be "shape average 230000 2300 0". The service-policy voice-policy hooks the bandwidth settings you've configure for your voice traffic to the policy-map you are using to slow the interface down.

d. Lastly, you need to apply all this to an interface. As such, I've applied the service-policy, shaper, in the outbound direction on this interface.

What will all this stuff do? Well, assuming your upload speed is sufficient, you can do whatever you want on your connection, from an upstream perspective, while talking on the phone and the person you are talking to will never notice. Slowing the interface down will also decrease your overall upload speed. This is a small price to pay to ensure good, consistent voice quality to the people you call.
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Celeron
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Joined: Nov 16, 2005
Posts: 37

PostPosted: Fri Jan 20, 2006 9:55 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote Back to top

How do you tell whether or not the QoS is actually working? Simply enter the command "show policy-map interface" from enable mode on the router. You will see output like this. I'll explain each section:

Bunson#sho policy-map interface

FastEthernet4

Service-policy output: shaper <---this is the shaper, this lets you know how the interface shaping is going.

Class-map: class-default (match-any)
1297876 packets, 290952072 bytes
30 second offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps
Match: any
Traffic Shaping
Target/Average Byte Sustain Excess Interval Increment
Rate Limit bits/int bits/int (ms) (bytes)
350000/350000 437 3500 0 10 437

Adapt Queue Packets Bytes Packets Bytes Shaping
Active Depth Delayed Delayed Active
- 0 1281156 277127074 193027 110851465 no <----this tells you whether or not shaping is currently active. When you don't come near the levels you set, it will say its not active. When it is active it will let you know how many packets and how many bytes were delayed by the shaping. This is good because it indicates that you are handling the congestion on the router instead of overrunning the cable modem.

Service-policy : voice-policy

Class-map: voice-traffic (match-all) 340390 packets, 87771896 bytes <---This part tells you how many voice packets you've matched. This is important because it tells you that the quality of service is working. When you are on a call this will increment. Since the last time I reloaded the 871 it matched 340 thousand voice packets.

30 second offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps
Match: ip rtp 10000 10000
Queueing
Strict Priority
Output Queue: Conversation 40
Bandwidth 200 (kbps) Burst 5000 (Bytes)
(pkts matched/bytes matched) 1122/321197
(total drops/bytes drops) 0/0 <----You should check this value. For the voice-policy it should always be 0. If it isn't you need to increase the amount of bandwidth you specified in the "priority" statement under the voice-traffic section of the policy-map.

Class-map: class-default (match-any) <---This is everything else. All the rest of your data falls into this category.
957486 packets, 203180176 bytes
30 second offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps
Match: any
Queueing
Flow Based Fair Queueing
Maximum Number of Hashed Queues 32
(total queued/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/11961/0 <---You should see drops here. This is exactly what it sounds like, dropped packets. This is ok because if you drop a data packet you can always send it again. Resending a voice packet is worthless because you can rewind a conversation, it would sound bizarre.

Note, none of this applies to the audio coming inbound to your phone. You have no control over that.
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Kash76
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Joined: Jan 11, 2005
Posts: 70

PostPosted: Thu Mar 02, 2006 11:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote Back to top

Just to let you know this post was a huge help to me.

Thank you very much for taking the time to post this!!

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EzCo
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Joined: Jul 21, 2005
Posts: 533
Location: Southeastern PA

PostPosted: Fri Mar 03, 2006 7:11 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote Back to top

Good stuff. That's a pretty standard config, but let me share a slightly different implementation that I've been using.

Instead of using 'match ip rtp', a bit better alternative is to use the nBAR style command 'match protocol rtp audio'. The older style 'match ip rtp' will priority queue any even numbered udp port from 10000 to 20000 (in this case), which could be anything. Voice traffic is on the even ports, control packets on the odds. The command 'match protocol rtp audio' does a match on the protocol itself, not just ports. To use nBAR, a prerequisite is CEF, so your router platform will need to support that as well. Additionally, adding call signalling to the strict queue is best practice. I used an acl for SIP protocol recognition. I gave rtp 90 Kbps and SIP 15Kbps.

If you notice I also set the dscp bits for my strict queues as well, but you really don't need to bother with that, your upstream provider won't do anything with them.


ip cef

ip access-list extended sip
permit udp any any eq 5061

class-map match-any call-signalling
match access-group name sip
class-map match-any voice
match protocol rtp audio
!
!
policy-map voice
class voice
set dscp ef
priority 90
class call-signalling
set dscp cs3
priority 15
class class-default
fair-queue
policy-map traffic-shape
class class-default
shape average 384000 38400 0
service-policy voice

interface FastEthernet0
bandwidth 384
service-policy output traffic-shape
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PunkMunk
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Joined: Mar 31, 2006
Posts: 1

PostPosted: Fri Mar 31, 2006 11:55 am    Post subject: Reply with quote Back to top

To Celeron (or EzCo),

Just curios, I am getting ready to take my ccna so all of the router commands and setup is familiar to me. You will have to excuse my ignorance as far as Voip technology as this is fairly new to me.

I just wanted to know, in your topology you list "vonage phone adapter" -- Is this a phone adapter without routing capabilities such as the "VTech IP8100" or is it a router with the phone adapter built in such as the "RTP 300"?

It seems that if you went with a Cisco Router (with one WAN Ethernet port and one LAN Ethernet port)then right to another router, a little redundant and if you have a Cisco Router I would think that you would put a switch underneath it. In which case (if you use a phone adapter) brings me to the question that I am really curious about, is the phone adapter "smart" enough to listen for packets between 10000 and 20000 or do you need to forward those to a specific network address/switch port and/or mac address in the router (or switch)?

I am trying to wrap my mind around this and if this is the wrong post to ask this question or if you could lead me to a page where I could find more info on Voip with cisco routers I would be grateful. Thanks for your help.

Punk.
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EzCo
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Joined: Jul 21, 2005
Posts: 533
Location: Southeastern PA

PostPosted: Fri Mar 31, 2006 4:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote Back to top

PunkMunk wrote:
To Celeron (or EzCo),

I just wanted to know, in your topology you list "vonage phone adapter" -- Is this a phone adapter without routing capabilities such as the "VTech IP8100" or is it a router with the phone adapter built in such as the "RTP 300"?


Doesn't matter what is behind the Cisco, it's just going to (outbound) priority queue anything with a destination udp port of 5061 and all rtp audio packets. It could be a Vtech or RTP300, or whatever.

PunkMunk wrote:

It seems that if you went with a Cisco Router (with one WAN Ethernet port and one LAN Ethernet port)then right to another router, a little redundant and if you have a Cisco Router I would think that you would put a switch underneath it. In which case (if you use a phone adapter) brings me to the question that I am really curious about, is the phone adapter "smart" enough to listen for packets between 10000 and 20000 or do you need to forward those to a specific network address/switch port and/or mac address in the router (or switch)?


No, there's nothing redundant about it, it's just the edge router. As far as a switch underneath it, the 1711 that I use has a four port switch built in. The 1711's function is firewall, NAT, DHCP, and QoS. The devices behind it do what they do best, Voip and wireless (in my case).

The phone adapter has to be smart enough to listen on udp 10000-20000, or it wouldn't be a phone adapter. You may have to do some port forwarding to get the packets to your adapter (depends on your setup), but nothing at layer 1 or 2 (switchport or mac-address).

PunkMunk wrote:

I am trying to wrap my mind around this and if this is the wrong post to ask this question or if you could lead me to a page where I could find more info on Voip with cisco routers I would be grateful. Thanks for your help.


www.cisco.com

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"Does anybody remember forests?"
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Vogul
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Joined: May 07, 2006
Posts: 3

PostPosted: Sun May 07, 2006 2:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote Back to top

So there's no way to do this without trying to match your upload speed? Is there any way to say "all traffic waits for Voip traffic" or ... "when Voip is sending, everyone else slows"?

Also, I have :

Vonage -> (eth) router (serial) -> (serial) router (eth) -> cable

Where should i go this? left router is 2507, right is 2501. Does it matter? Should set the up speed closer to the PCs in the 2507, or closer to the wan in the 2501?

Thanks!
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EzCo
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Joined: Jul 21, 2005
Posts: 533
Location: Southeastern PA

PostPosted: Sun May 07, 2006 11:34 am    Post subject: Reply with quote Back to top

Vogul wrote:
So there's no way to do this without trying to match your upload speed? Is there any way to say "all traffic waits for Voip traffic" or ... "when Voip is sending, everyone else slows"?

Also, I have :

Vonage -> (eth) router (serial) -> (serial) router (eth) -> cable

Where should i go this? left router is 2507, right is 2501. Does it matter? Should set the up speed closer to the PCs in the 2507, or closer to the wan in the 2501?

Thanks!


No, you really have to make sure you enable shaping because the key point of QoS (at least on real routers) is that it does not engage unless there is congestion. It's not possible to configre the router to enagage QoS just because there is the presence of traffic you would like to prioritize.

You'll definitely need to shape on the ethernet of the 2501 (connected to cable). However, to answer if you'll need to shape on the 2507, I need to know the actual speed of the circuit b/w the two 2500s. Are these just two 2500s stacked in your house with a DTE/DCE v.35 (or other) connection b/w them, or do you actually have a T1 or fractional T1 from a carrier b/w them? The short answer on that is basically if you have a sub-rate circuit between them (below T1), you'll need to shape to the speed of your circuit. If you have DCE/DTE, just set your clockrate on the DCE side to the max (I believe 2Mbps on a 2500) and you're fine, no shaping needed.

You can, however, put the same QoS policy on both routers. Egress of the serial on the 2507 and egress of the ethernet on the 2500. The one on the 2507 may just not include a shaping component.

I haven't followed what features are available on a 2500 for about six years, so make sure they support LLC before planning on this implementation.

_________________
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"Does anybody remember forests?"
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Vogul
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PostPosted: Sun May 07, 2006 12:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote Back to top

They are stacked and connected with two DTE/DCE cables right now. I put your example in the 2501, and I believe it's working :

Quote:

Class-map: class-default (match-any)
905660 packets, 369453629 bytes
5 minute offered rate 113000 bps, drop rate 0 bps
Match: any
Traffic Shaping
Target Byte Sustain Excess Interval Increment Adapt
Rate Limit bits/int bits/int (ms) (bytes) Active
310000 387 3100 0 10 387 -

Queue Packets Bytes Packets Bytes Shaping
Depth Delayed Delayed Active
0 905652 369445078 262329 101992916 no


I did some speed tests and tried to hit my up speed accurately :

Quote:

class-map match-all voip-class
match ip rtp 10000 10000
!
!
policy-map voip-policy
class voip-class
priority 200
class class-default
fair-queue
policy-map voip-shaper
class class-default
shape average 310000 3100 0
service-policy voip-policy


One thing that is odd though :

#sh int e0

5 minute input rate 79000 bits/sec, 59 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 106000 bits/sec, 24 packets/sec
1690058 packets input, 482547756 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 788599 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 1139 throttles
2 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 2 ignored
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
909166 packets output, 370958287 bytes, 0 underruns(475/205/0)
0 output errors, 680 collisions, 2279 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 1833 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

I was downloading and the "delayed packets" in the traffic shaper map were incrementing like crazy, even though my upload speed was far below the shaper's limit. But, that's probably normal due to 90kbps download overhead?

Anyway, my real question is, why is the interface resetting several times per minute during downloads? Is that just a function of having to drop packets, or does that signify another problem.. only the 2501 is doing it.
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EzCo
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Posts: 533
Location: Southeastern PA

PostPosted: Sun May 07, 2006 12:25 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote Back to top

Vogul wrote:
They are stacked and connected with two DTE/DCE cables right now. I put your example in the 2501, and I believe it's working :

Quote:

Class-map: class-default (match-any)
905660 packets, 369453629 bytes
5 minute offered rate 113000 bps, drop rate 0 bps
Match: any
Traffic Shaping
Target Byte Sustain Excess Interval Increment Adapt
Rate Limit bits/int bits/int (ms) (bytes) Active
310000 387 3100 0 10 387 -

Queue Packets Bytes Packets Bytes Shaping
Depth Delayed Delayed Active
0 905652 369445078 262329 101992916 no


I did some speed tests and tried to hit my up speed accurately :

Quote:

class-map match-all voip-class
match ip rtp 10000 10000
!
!
policy-map voip-policy
class voip-class
priority 200
class class-default
fair-queue
policy-map voip-shaper
class class-default
shape average 310000 3100 0
service-policy voip-policy


One thing that is odd though :

#sh int e0

5 minute input rate 79000 bits/sec, 59 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 106000 bits/sec, 24 packets/sec
1690058 packets input, 482547756 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 788599 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 1139 throttles
2 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 2 ignored
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
909166 packets output, 370958287 bytes, 0 underruns(475/205/0)
0 output errors, 680 collisions, 2279 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 1833 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

I was downloading and the "delayed packets" in the traffic shaper map were incrementing like crazy, even though my upload speed was far below the shaper's limit. But, that's probably normal due to 90kbps download overhead?

Anyway, my real question is, why is the interface resetting several times per minute during downloads? Is that just a function of having to drop packets, or does that signify another problem.. only the 2501 is doing it.


That's not actually my example. I don't use 'match ip rtp 10000 10000', I use 'match protocol rtp audip'. You may not be able to use my example, as I simply can't remember if Cisco every put cef in the 2500 code. If you look at my example as well, I only set the priority for voice to 90, not 200.

Interface resets can be from bad transceiver, cable cable, and over conjestion. If you we're seeing them before you put the policies on, then I would assume its because of that. I would try setting your voice priority to 90 instead of 200.

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